Cancer is the second leading cause of mortality in women. Although treatments have improved, prevention and early detection can have the greatest effect on reducing the burden of cancer in women, with an estimated 40% of cancers being potentially avoidable. Cancers related to smoking, obesity, physical inactivity, alcohol consumption, and poor nutrition account for the largest share of this estimate. This review examines strategies for reducing the burden of cancer in average-risk women. Specifically, we examine primary prevention strategies—those aimed at reducing the risk of developing cancer—as well as secondary prevention strategies—measures aimed at the early detection of disease. Annual well-women examinations are endorsed by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists as opportunities to counsel patients on preventive care or to refer to other specialists for recommended services.