To analyze changes in intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) utilization, indications, and outcomes across U.S. regions.
We conducted a retrospective cohort study. Data sets for 2000–2014 were obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Clinics with 100 or greater fresh, nondonor cycles were grouped by 10 nationally recognized Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) regions and were compared for use of ICSI, frequency of male factor infertility, preimplantation genetic therapies, pregnancy, and live birth rates per cycle among fresh in vitro fertilization cycles in women younger than 35 years of age.
Nationwide ICSI utilization increased 52% (46.3±6.1% to 70.0±7.1%) from 2000 to 2014, whereas pregnancy and live birth rates per cycle modestly increased by 8.5% (39.2±3.8% to 42.5±2.5%) and 7.6% (34.4±3.6% to 37±2.6%), respectively, showing a positive correlation (r=0.78, P<.001; r=0.76, P=.001) with ICSI rates per clinic. All DHHS Services regions demonstrated increases in ICSI utilization over time, although the magnitude of increase varied in different regions. Regions also had similarities in trends for pregnancy and live birth rates per cycle in women younger than 35 years. There was no correlation between male factor and ICSI rates per clinic from 2000 to 2010 (r=0.32, P=.33) or 2011 to 2014 (r=0.85, P=.068). From 2007 to 2014, ICSI and preimplantation genetic testing did not demonstrate a strong correlation (r=0.68, P=.062).
From 2000 to 2014, ICSI rates per clinic significantly varied among geographic regions. Increased use of ICSI did not correlate with an increase in male factor diagnoses. These findings suggest that ICSI may be overused, because its use is not accompanied by proportionate increases in medical indications or effectiveness.